Animals in the media Animals have been used in the media for many years as they catch the eye of the viewer. Animals which are used in advertisements usually donâ€™t have any or much relevance to the products being advertised. An example of this is the adverts for Dulux Paint, which uses an Old English Sheep dog in their adverts. They have used this breed of dog in their adverts since 1961 because this breed of dog has been used for so many years people associate it with the Dulux Company.The adverts catch peopleâ€™s attention and as the dog has no relevance to paint products and therefore people will discuss the adverts. Another example of animals having no relevance to the product in which they are being advertised is the Andrex adverts, they use Labrador puppies in their adverts for toilet paper. When the adverts first came out, Golden Labrador puppies became extremely in demand. However some of the people who were buying the puppies had done little to no research about the dog. The appeal of owning a Labrador was having a small, cute dog.However many owners didnâ€™t realise the size that they would grow to, many owners then re-homed them as they grew larger. However, there are exceptions to this where the animals are relevant to the product being advertised. These adverts are usually for pet products and rescue centres. Recue centres use abandoned looking animals in their adverts, which is an emotive technique. Another example of animals being used relevantly in adverts is pet products, such as Iamâ€™s or Pedigree. They show the animals which the product is for. They use cute animals which the public find appealing.Many adverts portray animals inaccurately; this causes people to believe that the images which are shown are a true reflection of the animal, as they have little or no knowledge of how the animal behaves. This may result in people potentially buying dangerous pets. This can be harmful to the owner or the animal and can result in abandonment. Animals which are portrayed as unpleasant, scary or dangerous can be in danger when people assume animals are worse than they are from seeing them on television. A good example of this is â€˜Harry Potterâ€™, where spiders are shown to be dangerous and scary.This causes people to have a higher fear of the animals, this can also develop into phobias, which may result in people hurting or killing animals. Another good example of where animals are portrayed to be much more vicious than they actually are is in the film â€˜Jawsâ€™. Great white sharks are perceived to be human killers and go out of their way to hunt humans whereas in reality the chance of being killed by a shark is less than 1 in 264. 1 million (1). Films also promote animals, implying that they would be good pets.In the film â€˜101 Dalmatiansâ€™ many breeds of dogs are perceived as being extremely intelligent and easy to care for. This causes people to purchase them without doing the correct research and easily become overwhelmed with the responsibility of caring for a dog. Animals in sports The most popular sports involving animals are horse racing, dog racing and angling. Many people find pleasure and excitement in racing and betting on animals, it creates enjoyment for owners, trainers and spectators. A large part of racing is when people gamble on the race.This will generate money for the owners and trainers of the animals as well as the book makers and the people who place the winning bets. Television will provide a source of income and promote the sport. People may also watch the races and place bets at their local Bookies. The animals which win the most races, are the most successful and will be highly valued for breeding. This helps to ensure good offspring for racing. Race horses will usually be spoilt and have the best quality of life to ensure that they are the fittest they can possibly be for racing. However, Greyhounds may be starved and beaten before races.Starving the dogs may provoke them to run faster to try and catch the â€˜rabbitâ€™ because their natural instincts kick in. Some owners/trainers may be more concerned with the financial gain than the animalsâ€™ welfare. As a result animals may be harmed during training. This also means that animals that are not fit enough to race may be abandoned, rehomed or destroyed. Animals may also be killed during racing as a result of injuries. Angling is very popular in the UK. Live bait is usually used to attract the fish but dead bait or artificial lures can be used instead.There are different types of angling including coarse, game and sea. The advantages of angling include the financial gain for manufacturers, dealers, charter skippers and the owners of the lakes and rivers where fishing takes place. The water quality in the lakes and rivers has greatly improved over recent years to benefit the stocks which also improve the quality of the fishâ€™s life and the underwater ecosystem. Many of the fish are returned to the lake or river in which they came. There are also disadvantages with angling. Fish will become stressed and physically injured through being captured and handled.Even when the fish are returned to lake/river, they may not always survive due to the shock. Careless anglers have been known to spread disease within the lakes and rivers. Alien species have also been introduced to the ecosystem which shall compete with the native species. Animal fighting is illegal in the UK as well as other countries. Animals which are used to fight include bulls, cocks, dogs, fish, as well as badger and bear baiting. There are no advantages in this for the animals however some people get pleasure and money from this particular sport.The dogs are mistreated and starved so they become more aggressive. All animals involved in fighting suffer and many die from injury and infections to wounds received. The survivors to the fight will not receive the veterinary treatment that they require; therefore the healing process will be long and painful. Animals in work Animals have been used for helping disabled people and in working situations for many years. Guide dogs are given to the blind or extremely visually impaired people so that they find it easier to partake in everyday life.The dogs are trained to watch out for cars and objects that the owner may walk into, the dog will be able to guide them away from danger. Dogs can also be specially trained to help the disabled by opening doors, retrieving medicines and food. They can also be trained to alert help if the owner is injured or is unconscious. Some dogs can be trained to detect oncoming epileptic fits and can therefore warn the owner before a seizure occurs. Animals can also be used in a farming environment. The dogs which are commonly used are Border Collies, they are used to herd animals into a group.They are extremely intelligent and can learn commands by whistling and speech easily. They are trained to know the difference between herding left and right, they are also usually trained from a young age and are used until they are old. Dogs such as Spaniels can be used as gun dogs, this is where a shooting team shoots down birds and the dog will retrieve it unharmed. Horses were used to plough fields, gather sheep and cattle and transporting goods. However, they have now been replaced by machines. Animals in commercial use Animals can be used for their meat or for the products they produce.Chickens are used for their eggs until they canâ€™t produce anymore, then they are killed for their meat. Battery farms keep chickens in cruel conditions, they will sometimes be force fed and have their beaks cut off to avoid pecking other chickens in the overcrowded conditions. Free range chickens however, are kept in good conditions with lots of room to run around. Cows are used for their milk, which can be turned in to yogurts and cheese; meat and their skin, which is used to make leather. Animals can also be used for medical testing as well as the testing of cosmetics.Many animals are put through stressful situations whilst being tested on. Medical testing can include testing drugs on animals for humans. However, animals have a different anatomy to humans and what may be harmful to them may be good for humans. For example, rabbits will die from taking Penicillin whereas it is beneficial to humans. Testing cosmetics on animals is needless as there are alternative methods to testing products. Itâ€™s not as common as it used to be, however, it does still happen. Products that donâ€™t test on animals often publicise it as itâ€™s an effective selling point.
Insect-Borne Disease and Australia
Insect borne diseases loom as a potential threat in many countries including Australia. Australia has been relatively free of insect-borne diseases compared to other southern land masses such as South America and Africa. Australia has several characteristics that influence the prevalence of insect-borne disease. Some these features include low altitudes, tropical forests, Southern Oscillation, and the fact that Australia is an island continent. Some of the most common insect-borne diseases of concern in Australia include Murray Valley encephalitis, Malaria, Dengue fever, Ross Valley virus and Yellow fever. The most common vector in Australia is the mosquito, in particular Aedes aegypti, which is the Dengue vector. Dengue fever is a flavivirus and is the greatest insect-borne disease threat in Australia. Two presentations of Dengue fever are known; classic Dengue fever and Dengue hemorrhagic fever. Classic Dengue fever is fairly common, usually in urban areas, and usually not life threatening. Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a very serious illness. Dengue is usually isolated to North Queensland, which is brought in by infected international travelers and maintained by the large Aedes aegypti population in Queensland. Australia and north Queensland have implemented management plans to control and eradicate Dengue fever and other potential insect-borne viruses. Keys to this plan are disease surveillance, mosquito control and surveillance, and education.
Insect-borne diseases are a common threat to travelers, especially when traveling to tropical countries. Insect-borne diseases are usually transmitted by mosquitoes and are caused by several types of microorganisms. Vaccinations, mosquito control, and education are common methods utilized in minimizing the effects of insect-borne disease.
In this paper I will attempt to give an overview of insect-borne disease in Australia. In doing this, I plan on describing the most common insect-borne diseases in Australia, the vectors behind these diseases, and common methods used in prevention of insect-borne disease in Australia.
Australian Geographical Features
Compared to other southern land masses, such as South America and Africa, Australia has been and is relatively free of insect-borne disease (Kettle 1993).
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